If you would like to share,
  e-mail or bookmark this
  page, the tools below
  are available for your

  Surf with confidence!
  Site has been tested by:
    Norton™ Safe Web
    McAfee SiteAdvisor ®

   Article: Bank Angle for
   Standard Rate Turn
  Your source for:
Online Aviation Instrument Simulators + E6b, CR3 and other Flight Computer Calculators
Home Page |  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 | Next  

Bank Angle and the Physics of Standard Rate Turns (continued)

V - Comparing the Approximations to the Exact Formula

At Low Speeds:

Standard Rate Turn Bank Angle (Low Speeds)
Chart 5-1

Chart 5-1 graphs each equation. The solid blue line is the exact equation c. At a quick glance it seems that equation remains consistently close to the exact equation throughout the true airspeed (TAS) range. This happens to be the rule of thumb equation outlined in the FAA handbook (see section I).

Standard Rate Turn Bank Angle Error (Low Speeds)
Chart 5-2

In chart 5-2 we can take a closer look at the deviations (errors) from the exact equation . Of the two equations that can be mentally calculated, once again equation is the one with the least amount of error overall throughout the true airspeed range. Equation is more precise than equation up to approximately 100 knots, but then the error increases abruptly after that. Equation is only more precise than the others throughout a very narrow range from about 83 to 100 knots.

At High Speeds:

Standard Rate Turn Bank Angle (High Speeds)
Chart 5-3

From chart 5-3 it seems equation is better over a wider range than the others. It is also evident that equation begins to deviate greatly from the exact equation at close to 600 knots.

Standard Rate Turn Bank Angle Error (High Speeds)
Chart 5-4

Chart 5-4 gives a clearer look at how much each equation is deviating from the exact equation. Even though equation is better over a wider range, equation works better than equation up to about 300 knots. Equation has an error of less than 5o from 300 knots up until about 580 knots.


Its is probably best to use equation up to 300 knots. From 300 knots to 580 knots equation is better overall in that range. Above 580 knots it's probably best not to use any of the approximate equations. Beyond around 600 knots the bank angle is going to start to exceed 60o and it will be highly unlikely that any civilian aircraft is going to want to exceed that bank angle while flying instruments.


Home Page |  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 | Next  

  Navigation Simulator  
  Practice in our simulator specifically designed for learning the basics of instrument navigation. Try the Navigation Simulator, available for Windows. Free to try fully functional version for 10 days, $39.95 to buy. Note: this simulator has its own self-contained Flash so it works without Flash being installed and is not subject to the Adobe Flash discontnuation / end of life.  



  Free Online Simulators
No installation required. These simulators are ready to run on your web browser and have a rich set of features. Practice basic VOR, ADF, RMI and HSI intrument orientation and execute holding patterns. Other simulators include pitot static system and altimeter errors. Click here to go to main online simulator page.
All rights reserved to Luiz Roberto Monteiro de Oliveira.  No content or code of this web site may be reproduced without prior permission from the author. 
LuizMonteiro LLC d/b/a luizmonteiro.com